More information about this outputs:

  • Compendium of existing approaches
  • Collection of-state-of-the-art participatory approaches for conflict reduction by stakeholder involvement
  • Aligned support environment for long-lasting transnational cooperation in lynx conservation
  • Health, Husbandry and Management of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)
  • Overview of Good Practices on Eurasian Lynx Monitoring and Conservation

Compendium of existing approaches

The Compendium of existing approaches from other sources presents an overview of current lynx management approaches and monitoring methods, about challenges and problems arising with the occurrence, the detection and capture of Eurasian lynx to determine their distribution and population numbers outside the Bohemian-Bavarian-Austrian (BBA), East-Alpine and Dinaric population. It lists approaches (and outcomes) in countries of the European Union with Eurasian lynx populations and includes management and monitoring programs that are currently in use. Additionally, threats and arising conflict scenarios within the respective countries and populations are mentioned and applied conflict management and compensation schemes are described. With the goal of identifying and pointing potential options and solutions for conflict mitigation and reduction in future scenarios. The assessment of already implemented efforts within other lynx populations in the respective countries allows for identification of factors that act as barriers and drivers during implementation of active and passive monitoring schemes.

A conclusion provides a summary about the aspects of lynx management and monitoring, that have emerged as the most urgent and important topics in the respective countries and populations. Additionally, the appendix contains overview tables of applied management and monitoring schemes and compensation schemes, as well as existing/arising threats and conflicts for each country and population accompanied by a list of actual literature references, which cites approaches and publications allowing for easy access of information to deal with the respective topic in more detail.

Altogether, the compendium provides information about future choices concerning monitoring, participatory measures for stakeholder involvement and conflict reduction as well as other related topics, which are identified as crucial factors for functional Eurasian lynx conservation management and monitoring schemes in Europe.


Collection of-state-of-the-art participatory approaches for conflict reduction by stakeholder involvement

The present collection of state-of-the-art participatory approaches for conflict reduction by stakeholder involvement points out important factors summarizes and synthesizes them for the successful reduction of human – large carnivore conflicts. More precisely, which factors contribute to conflict; approaches that mitigate them and encourage acceptance, coexistence and present emerging trends and debates which could help to facilitate participatory approaches more directly towards the existing conflicts, that arise, exist and prevail. The document explains key concepts of participatory involvement and coexistence describes the importance of implementing participatory approaches into conservation management schemes to mitigate human – large carnivore conflicts. It examines main categories of human – large carnivore conflicts in regard of Eurasian lynx in the 3Lynx project area, characterizes factors influencing conflict and responses to conflict, including different types of participatory approaches, applied in different case studies across Europe. It aims at assistance to understand development, nature and generalized patterns of human – large carnivore conflicts, expanding boundaries of what is considered as conflict, gives an overview about different participatory tools and technologies, as well as providing information for collaboration to address, mitigate and solve human – large carnivore (Eurasian lynx) related conflicts and promote acceptance and coexistence.


Aligned support environment for long-lasting transnational cooperation in lynx conservation

The 3Lynx Project has set a very good basis for the long-lasting transnational cooperation in lynx conservation. The pilot lynx monitoring systems were launched, equipment purchased and set in field, working procedures established. This aligned support environment is now working very well and it should be an obligation of every project country to further develop it and use it for lynx conservation and management as planned in this output. For this, a political as well as financial support is needed. Therefore, based on this output, the framework of the future work with the support environment will be set in the main project Output O.T3.3 Transnational lynx conservation strategy on population level, a main strategy defining the lynx conservation policy in the region.



Health, Husbandry and Management of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)

The present handbook “Health, Husbandry and Management of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)”, initially provides an overview of biological and morphological traits, as well as vital signs of the Eurasian Lynx. It furthermore deals with conservation laws and conventions, as well as European regulations concerning animal welfare, which are applying to the species. Main topics of the handbook are represented with an overview of legal aspects concerning anaesthesia of Eurasian lynx; different methods of capture and subsequent application of drugs for anaesthetisation (as well as alternative drugs and supplemental doses). The provision of bio-medical protocols for free-ranging lynx; information on handling of anaesthetised individuals for subsequent procedures such as sample collection, radio collaring or surgical procedures (e.g. transmitter implantation). Further chapters are dealing with non-invasive genetic sampling (excreta/blood/hair/saliva); a comprehensive tabular overview of conditions, diseases and common causes for adult and pre-adult mortality detected in Eurasian lynxes; information concerning diagnosis, detected symptoms and therapy and treatment suggestions (viral diseases, rare or incorrectly diagnosed viral diseases, bacterial diseases, parasitic diseases: endoparasites, parasitic diseases: ectoparasites, protozoal diseases and non-infectious diseases).

A chapter on forensic investigations and necropsy procedures, including an overview and summary of the most frequent causes leading to a non-natural cause of death of Eurasian lynx (e.g. shooting, vehicle collisions, snaring/trapping and poisoning). Furthermore, typical injuries and conditions that are identified on a lynx carcass postmortem and conclusions about the possible causes, which resulted in death are briefly summarized. Additional, websites and contact details for experts, dealing with forensic investigations of potential wildlife crimes and suspected foul play within the project partner countries are mentioned and literature references concerning Wildlife Crimes and Forensic Investigations are given.

The first appendix consists of the Husbandry Guidelines, which contain comprehensive information on the general handling of captive held individuals in different scenarios (e.g. quarantine prior to reintroduction; handling of orphaned and/or (permanently) injured individuals); discussing topics like  transportation, quarantine procedures, enclosure settings and feeding ecology to provide a natural diet.

The second appendix of the handbook contains forms, lists and protocols, in order to record information at lynx capture events (translocation, reintroduction), provide a mortality event and necropsy protocol form for dead found individuals, a flowchart for wildlife crime investigation, a tissue examination and a skeletal lesion form as well as lists for general equipment needed for the respective procedures discussed in the handbook.


Overview of Good Practices on Eurasian Lynx Monitoring and Conservation